Thursday, March 31, 2011

Animal Behavior and Preference for High-Calorie Foods (Answering Anon's Q)

"Anonymous" posed the following question to me several days ago under my "Snack Attack Experiment" post:
"Just curious about this idea. As a zoology major, what do you think about the tendency of all animals to 'prefer' high-calorie foods as a survival instinct? To clarify: sugar, starches and fats taste 'good' because it is more advantageous to the body than low-calorie food sources like grains or veggies. You know, bigger bang for your dietary buck. Any thoughts?"
I do have thoughts (and rare moments to quietly think them through in a tangible flow). I'm certainly no expert on animal behavior, but I enjoyed mulling over your question. Although I recall reading about this subject, I have no references before me, and I don't know if this tendency applies to "all" animals -- it may, but I can't make that claim.     (Continues below picture).
Source: Bansky


What we're talking about:
In a raw, unsalted nut shell, many animals (including us) evolved and experienced times when food was scarce and had to be worked for (hunt, gather, till). It was advantageous to like high-caloric foods in order to be sustained until more food was found. With meat-eaters, for example, the fatty muscles of the kill would be eaten first. That extra energy was needed for survival: obtain more food, find and defend shelter, and do the mating dance (including looking healthy enough to attract a mate).


My youngest.
On top of desiring sweeter, high-caloric choices, our taste buds also detect bitterness - a survival trait to avoid ingesting poisons. Green vegetables can be bitter, especially raw. The bitterness, it's been suggested, is an indication of toxicity. The levels are low in the common green veggies we consume and won't harm us. However, that bitterness is stronger for children's taste buds, they are more sensitive to it. Which makes sense because their bodies are smaller and may not handle the toxicity levels the same way an adult can. Their bodies tell them "Ugh! Don't eat this!" They eventually, with repetitive exposure and patience, will grow into their green veggies and eat them. Until then, they will most likely choose the sweeter, high-caloric foods, which they NEED for their growing bodies and seemingly endless supply of energy. Nuts and fruit certainly fit the bill, but according to their taste buds, so do cookies, ice cream, and candy, and maybe even more so because of the high sugar content.


Therefore, if given a choice between a sweet, high-energy food or a possibly bitter, lower-energy food, the natural tendency is to choose the sweet one, just like Anonymous pointed out.


Our modern lifestyle doesn't require as many fatty/starchy/sugary foods because we move less.
Source
We still need to earn a living to obtain food, find shelter, and support a mate/family -- but now a lot of it can be done while sitting down. Even finding a mate can be done sitting down with computer-dating services.


Source


At the risk of over-simplifying, for much of the modern population, we've moved from an active-because-you-have-to environment to a sit-because-you-can civilization. BUT, we still have the high-caloric-desiring tendencies. Bummer.


Expending energy.
Source
Young children (as well as most young mammals) want to play, jump around, and chase each other; it's part of their development and preparation for adulthood. As adults, energy is conserved for survival needs. Some potential prey will be foregone if the cost of energy to catch it is too great, especially if there are other food sources available, although less-tasty.


For instance, would you run a mile for a hamburger that may or may not be there, or conserve energy and go for positively-available greens, roots, berries and nuts?




But we have many choices at our fingertips. And many of them are poor, inferior choices. They are "convenient" alternatives to the real thing, resulting in not only conserving energy but packing on more "energy stores" a.k.a. "fat" in the process. Thanks to our taste buds, food chemists, food giants and marketing schemes, we learn to prefer fruit snacks to fruit because they are more convenient to eat (it's easier to pop a fruit snack than to deal with sticky fruit, peels and seeds).


At this point you may be thinking I'm ready to chuck my kids' snack boxes and force them to only eat nutrient and power-dense foods.


If we go on mindlessly succumbing to convenient play food and a sedentary lifestyle, our health will pay the toll.
We gravitate towards easy energy disguised as food. Now we need to educate ourselves of the differences, but we still want them! We didn't used to have to learn about the difference between play food and real food. You ate what was available, and what was available was real, and you had to work somehow to get it.


Education will help us stop being mindless/ignorant to what's happening.
toptenz.net
We need to teach ourselves to compensate for lifestyle changes. Manipulated "foods" won't be going away. Sedentary lifestyles are easy to slip into. We, therefore, must wake up and work to try to return some of what our bodies were built to do and process. We have to educate ourselves that our bodies feel better with real foods and activity. Our emotions and mental capacities improve, also.


It takes work/effort/desire to educate ourselves and family to make better choices.
It takes work to provide vegetables and grains in a pleasing way especially if my family isn't used to it. It's so much easier to grab a "convenience" food. When I'm especially hungry, I don't feel like washing and chopping and preparing. I just want to eat. It takes work to plan ahead. And it takes work to educate ourselves that those convenience foods aren't so convenient to our health if they are the main source of our nutrition.


oneshotfitness.com
It may take work for some of us to MOVE in our sedentary lifestyle (and stop conserving energy for the hunt or migration). To some it comes naturally because they know how good moving feels and of its benefits. They have found exercises they like. For others, it takes work to convince themselves to run although no one is chasing them, or climb going no where or to do any kind of exercise that doesn't result in obtaining food and shelter (wouldn't our ancestors laugh at us?!). {Me personally, I know how good activity feels, and my body craves it, but sometimes I ignore my body's incessant reminders that it needs to be more active. I'm an all-or-nothing kind of person for most things in my life, including exercises. I'm teaching myself 10 minutes here and there is okay, and that I don't have to act like a person in training}.


Educate ourselves and our family. But who do you believe?
We need to educate ourselves, and it may take trial and error to find what is right you. Now, who do you believe to provide you with accurate information in an ever-changing, multi-million dollar diet industry? Who's expert advice do you believe?


The body, untainted, is an expert. It's amazing. It will tell you when it is hungry and full. It will tell you it didn't like what you just ate. It will tell you what it needs. It has evolved to do that. And in the last 60 or so years, we've managed to mess with its perfect system by ignoring the body's signals.
I'm amazed I found this photo.
I love how "I have a voice" is in front of the
body and stomach area.
We blame ourselves for having cravings.
Cravings are signals from the body. When we go on fad diets and eliminate food groups, the body tells you it needs it. The signal is ignored because it doesn't fit into the diet designed by "experts." The body proceeds to scream for it in the form of cravings. Then you grab a cheap, junky version of what it's really asking for and blame yourself for not having willpower.


I love this quote (don't know the source), "Obesity is a symptom of starvation."
Like I said earlier, the body is the expert. It sends us signals. We grab sub par versions of what it is asking for (we follow only our taste buds), and our bodies never really get fed and sends more signals. There may be something in the stomach, and our taste buds approve, but our bodies are not happy or satisfied -- it's starving for real nutrition.


What to do?
Do I pull the snack stash boxes? No, not yet. I want all of us to be conscious of what is out there and why it is out there and make choices.


I'm not going to be around forever to tell them (my kids), "No, you can't have that (play food)." I want them to learn they can have it but then choose not to most of the time. (Besides, how much more do you want something that you are told you can't have?)


I'm learning how to cook real foods and am teaching my kids how to cook so they are not at the mercy of fast-food chains, packaged foods, and restaurants. The art of cooking in everyday households is disappearing - zap a tray, open a box, dump a can. When all else fails, drive to a drive-thru.


(Interesting, after cooking real foods with real flavors, fast food chains have become unappealing for the most part).


Looks like I've written a lot (Anonymous, are you sorry you asked?).
Other things on my mind but won't get into:
-I wonder if we are the only species that binges. I'm sure there's some rat-study somewhere.
-Emotions, what kind of affect they have on our energy and desire to grab sugar
-Artificial ways of receiving energy
-Thinking you are healthy because you are skinny

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